Minggu, 01 Juli 2012

Kumpulan skripsi tesis bahasa inggris


 

Hallo para sobat bloger….gimana kabarnya nih? Ok pada kesempatan kali ini saya akan melanjutkan posting saya yang kemarin tentang seputar bahasa inggris, Tp….untuk hari ini judul posting saya adalah Kumpulan skripsi tesis bahasa inggris Bagi teman-teman bloger yang ingin mencari sumber referensi skripsinya,tidak ada salahnya untuk menyimak artikel saya ini. Atas perhatian dan kunjungannya saya ucapkan terima kasih….

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Skripsi thesis

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF QUESTIONING STRATEGY IN TEACHING SPEAKING FOR THEFIRST LEVEL AT ENGLISH COURSE

 

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This introductory chapter presents the background of the study, statement problem of the study, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, and definition of key terms used in this study.
1.1. Background of the Study
According to Joyce (1992:2), Language is the important thing in daily life, because language takes people in all of their business successfully either National or International. Language is used to communicate and interact among people orally. If we want to talk people. We need language to deliver a message to others. Delivering a message also need many vocabularies. They must be arranged to make someone understand easily what we talk. We cannot talk well and fluently without a good arrangement of language.
Basically language is not a kind of science to be learnt, but it is a kind of skill to be Practiced and trained. It means that learning language will take time, so the process of Language acquisition should be really much appreciated.
Among the four language skills, speaking is often regarded to be the most important since it is the main way people communicate with one another. To communicate means to understand and to express information, feeling, and idea to develop science, technology, and culture by using the language.
The most important reason for teaching speaking is to develop oral fluency, which is the ability to express oneself intelligibly, reasonably, and accurately. In other words we can say that if we study a language, we must be able to use the language to interact with other people in the real situation.
Teaching speaking an important part of language learning. The ability to communicate and interact in the target language clearly and efficiently will contribute to the success of the students at school and success later in their life. That is why it is also important for the English teachers to pay great attention to teaching speaking.
This is the teachers’ responsibilities to create speaking activities that can develop students’ basic interactive skill which will be necessary for the students’ life. The activities should make the make the students more active in the teaching and learning process as well as make their speaking classes more meaningful rather than just drilling and memorizing the dialogues.
Speaking is a productive skill, as such; its development is undertaken after the receptive skill of listening comprehension, and perhaps of reading, and is always somewhat behind that of the receptive skill. How far the productive skill lags behinds the receptive depends upon the learner, how far he has advanced in his language learning, and the linguistic complexity of the material. Learning to speak is obviously more difficult than learning to understand the spoken language. More effort is required on the part of the students, and more concern for sequential arrangement of activities is required on the part of the teacher.
The status of English in Indonesia as a foreign language has made the students face many difficulties in mastering it. This is because English is not used in their daily life as a mean of communication. English in Indonesia is taught as a compulsory subject from elementary school to senior high school.
The situation of teaching English in Indonesia is low. The government has made any efforts. The curriculum has been changed for many times. Many kinds of methods have been applied, but the objectives stated in the curriculum, especially the objective of teaching speaking has not been achieved yet. In short, we can say that teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia, an especially in formal school has been found to be not very successful. Prove it, some foreign teachers are teaching English in Indonesia and there are many students still low achievement that can see from score final examination.
A number of factors have considered contributing to this situation. Consequently, it may be challenging for the English teachers to find strategies that can encourage the students to participate and interact in teaching and learning process.
In reality, there are many students when they speak English. They often get difficulties for example the students don’t have much vocabulary, they cannot speak with good pronunciation. The students can speak although there are many mistakes when they speak.  Some of the English students although they have been studying the same subject of a language is quite a long time, but there is no guarantee that the longer they study the more the mastery. The problem is why having learned English for many years but most learners feel they have no ability to use the language as a medium of communication. They probably understand English when other people speak.
Based on the reason above, one way to improve their English ability by joining English course. English courses have spread widely all over Indonesia nowadays, including in Madura. One of the famous English courses in Pamekasan, Madura, is Institute Prima Bhakti (IPB) English Course. Because the problem offers an effective strategy that is given by instructors. One of the learning strategy is questioning in Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL). This strategy is expected to be the best way to make students’ ability much better and getting successfully. (Johnson, Elaine B. 2002)
CTL was first proposed by John Dewey 1916 who advocated the curriculum and teaching methodology. Tied to students’ experiences and interest. In this strategy, the concept of learning is helping teachers in relating material with real condition of students and supporting the students to make relation between their owned knowledge with the implementation in daily activities. With this strategy, the students are expected to understand what the important of the study, the advantage and how they reach it.
Questioning is the main strategy of Contextual Learning, because knowledge usually start from questioning. In learning process, questioning is considered as teachers’ activity to support, guide, and evaluate students to dig information, analyzing and explore ideas. (Nurhadi, 2002: 45).
The director said the system held in IPB English course is really different that it emphasizes 75% speaking and 25% structure. It’s realized that methods held common institution are truly on structure, or writing skills. Consequently, learners and graduate of English are only qualified in grammar but they cannot speak fluently. Meanwhile, English speaking ability is absolutely required facing globalization era as a mean of communication.
Therefore, the writer wants to describe the phenomena further on how teaching speaking in the first level at IPB Pamekasan on questioning used in teaching speaking. The writer formulates her thesis namely” The Implementation of Questioning Strategy in Teaching Speaking For The First Level at Institut Prima Bhakti (IPB) English Course in Pamekasan”.

1.2    Statement Problem of the Study
            Based on the background of the study above we can take some problems:
  1. What types of question does the teacher use in teaching speaking for the first      English Course?
  2. How is the implementation of questioning strategy in teaching speaking for the first level at English Course?
  3. What are the difficulties faced by students in the implementation of questioning strategy in teaching speaking for the first level?
  4. How does the teacher solve the students’ problem in the implementation of questioning strategy in teaching speaking for the first level?

1.3   Objective of the Study
              Based on the statement of problem, objective of the study are:
  1. To find out types of question does the teacher use in teaching speaking for the first level at English Course
  2. To describe the implementation of questioning strategy in teaching speaking for the first level at English Course
  3. To find out the difficulties faced by students in the implementation of questioning strategy in teaching speaking for the first level
  4. To explain the solution of students’ problem in the implementation of questioning strategy in teaching speaking for the first level
1.4   Significance of the Study
There are some significant of the study that is probably will give some benefits for some aspect:
  1. For the ResearcherTo know the strategy in teaching speaking English Course. The Researcher could organize his students when he conducts his teaching in the real classroom later.
  2. To evaluate teaching speaking strategy
           The result of this study will become contribute to increase teaching speaking
  1. The result of this study can be reference in teaching learning speaking nonformal education. 
  2. This study will give suggestion to institution in order to provide supporting facility to improve the implementation of questioning and to determine new steps to get a good achievement.
For The Students: This research can give motivation effectively and efficiently to students. This research tries to increase their spirit in learning speaking. This research can give experiences for the students in improving their skill. For writer and readers .The result of this study is expected to be useful thing to enlarge the knowledge how to implement of questioning strategy in developing speaking ability.
1.5   Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research focuses on the implementation of questioning strategy used by the English teacher in teaching speaking for the first level students at English Course. The limitation of this study is on types of question, the implementation of questioning strategy in teaching speaking, the difficulties faced by students  and the teacher solve the students problem in the implementation of questioning strategy in teaching speaking for first level
1.6   The Definition of Key Terms
            To avoid misunderstanding the researcher defines some terms related to this research:
  1. The implementation is procedure to explain something to carry outplay, idea, etc (Slavin, 1994).
  2. Questioning strategy is the main strategy of contextual learning, because knowledge usually starts from questioning. (Nurhadi, 2002:45)
  3. Teaching speaking is an action to produce oral skill in live instructor design to impart learning to the students. (Retrieved from http: //en. Wikipedia. Org/wiki/teaching, accessed July 17th , 2011.11:37 AM)
  4. English Course is non formal institution which is held by several people to improve every student’s ability in mastering English well.
  5. IPB is one of English Courses that focuses on speaking and grammar and existed in Pamekasan which is located at Dirgahayu 22 Street.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter the researcher of thesis would like to present review of related literature containing the nature of speaking, speaking ability, factors affecting student speaking ability, teaching speaking, the nature of CTL, the nature of questioning, and the implementation of questioning strategy.
2.1 Speaking

 2.1.1 The Nature of Speaking
Speaking is one of English language skills which are important in direct communication. Hornby in Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary of Current English (1987:827) gives the definition of speaking as “making use of language in an ordinary, not a singing voice “. In speaking the sounds are combined in sentences to convey meaning (Rarastesa, 2004:318). Kurniasih (2004:16) explains that the effects of this activity made the speaker of a language be able to communicate, interact with each other, understand others and make good social relationships among others.
Speaking has important role and place in the teaching and learning English. Finocciaro in Utomo (206:8) states that spoken language is consideration primary in the teaching of a foreign language and naturally students will learn spoken language before acquiring the written language.
Since language is practices and speech is language, the teacher should not only gives the language component but also many time and opportunities to the students to speak it. So, the students can reach the ability to use the language in natural and real communication. Freeman in Utomo (2006:8) says that communication is a process and it is insufficient for the students to simply have knowledge of the target language forms, meaning, and functions, students must be able to apply their knowledge in the negotiating meaning.
From the statement above, Speaking is one of English language skills which are important in direct communication. We know that practice the effort which is intended to help students to be able to use the target language. Practice will prevent the students not only to know the function and form of a language but also have the ability to use it in real communication.
      2.1.2 Speaking Ability
Speaking is a language skill that applies verbal performance and non-verbal performance. Most students convey that speaking is a difficult skill of foreign language learning. Therefore, the teacher should pay more attention to the improvement of the speaking skill.
The goal of teaching the spoken language in the classroom is to enable the students to express their ideas in the language. However, the important thing in speaking that should be known by the speaker is to make the listener understands of what the speaker is saying. According to Johnson (1995:5) there are four major components generally recognized in the analysis of speech process namely: fluency and accuracy of pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. Therefore, the speaker should know well those major components of speaking besides knowing with whom, when and they practice their speaking.

  1. 1.        Fluency
The main goal of teaching productive skill is to improve students’ fluency in speaking English. Brown and Yule (1995:13) confirm that the purpose of the speaker in holding a speaking activity is to transfer and communicate some messages. Poor fluency cause communication failure that lead to misunderstanding situation.
Fluency in speaking ability can be obtained through students’ experience on practicing the language repeatedly. Brown and Yule (1995:103) notes that one of the main purposes in teaching speaking is making the students able to communicate the information effectively in spoken language.
The fluency of the students on speaking ability is not only focused on how the students produced the language fluently or smoothly, but they also need to consider the appropriateness of what they want to talk, or in other words it is the accuracy.
  1. 2.        Accuracy
Speaking does not only bravery in expressing the idea in English, but also requires the understanding of the English rules. In this case, the students need to know the pronunciation rules, have the sufficient knowledge of familiar vocabularies and the English grammar.
  1. a.        Pronunciation
Meade et al., (1961:148) say that pronunciation is vital to the effectiveness of the speech. The aim of the teaching pronunciation is not merely to make students memorize the voice of consonant, vowels, intonation, stress, and rhythm, but unable them to produce those things in their utterances so that the listeners understand their utterances. Brown and Yule (1995:8) have also notes that pronunciation becomes the very important component in teaching spoken language. The students are required to discriminate the sounds or words spoken in isolation. Besides, the students should know and identify the stress or intonation of each vocabulary.
  1. b.        Vocabulary
The teacher has never doubted the value of learning vocabulary. They know how communication stops when learners lack of the necessary vocabulary. Horn by (1995:958) says that vocabulary means a total number of words with the rule combining those words to make up a language. To make an effective communication, the students need to know a large number of vocabularies.
Teacher should also realize that without any ability of using the vocabulary, having some extends of vocabularies would be useless for the students. Students might get difficulties in expressing their idea without good coordination of their vocabulary. They need to practice their ability in spoken language. Therefore, it is necessary for the teacher to motivate the students to be active in using the target language as frequently as possible using as many appropriate vocabularies as possible.
  1. c.         Grammar
In teaching the spoken language, the teacher does not only teach how to speak well but also make the students understand the theory of how to produce sentences. In this case, grammar is component of language that becomes very crucial. Radford (1988:2) explains that grammar of particular language consists of a set of rules or principles, which gives explanation on how to speak the language, to form, to pronounce and to interpret phrases and sentences not the multiplicity of sounds, words, phrases, and discourse forms that characterize any language, but rather the interactive nature of most communication. Conversations are collaborative as participants engage in a process of negotiation of meaning. So, for learners the matter of discourse constraints, grammar side and vocabulary things and other.
2.1.3  Factors Affecting Student Speaking Ability
According to Jack C.  Richards and Willy A. Reynanda (2002:205), there are four Factors that affect student oral communication ability that are age or maturational Constraints, aural medium, socio-cultural factors and affective factors. Below are the explanations of the four factors that affect student speaking skill.
a)   Age or Maturational Constraints
Age is one of the most commonly cited determinant factors of success or
failure in foreign language  learning. Several experts such as Krashen an
Scarcella  argue  that  acquires  who  begin  learning  a  second  language  I
early childhood through natural exposure achieves higher proficiency than
those beginning as adults. Many adults fail to reach native-like proficiency
in   a   second   language.  Their progress   seems   to   level off   at   certain stage.
This  fact  shows  that  the  aging  process  itself  may  affect  or  limit  adult
Learner‘s ability to pronounce the target language fluently with native-like
pronunciation.
b)   Aural Medium
The central role of listening comprehension in foreign language
acquisition process in now largely accepted. It means that Listening plays
an  extremely  important  role  in  the  development  of  speaking  abilities.
Speaking feeds listening, which precede it. So, speaking is closely relate
to  or  interwoven  with  listening  which  is  the  basic  mechanism  through
which the rules of language are internalized.
c)   Socio-cultural Factors
Many cultural characteristics of a   language also affect   foreign   language learning. From a pragmatic perspective, language is a form of social action because   linguistic communication occurs   in   the  context of  structured interpersonal exchange and meaning   is   thus socially  regulated.  Thus,   to speak a language, one must know how language is used in a social context. It is well known that each language has its own rules of usage as to when, how, and what degree  a speaker may impose a given  verbal  behavior oftheir  conversational  partner.  In addition, oral communication   involves a very powerful nonverbal communication  system  which sometimes contradicts  the messages  provided  through  the  verbal  listening  channel.
Because of a lack of familiarity with nonverbal communication system of target   language, EFL   learners  usually do not  know  how   to pick  up nonverbal  cues.  So,  it  is  an  important  point  to  understand  that  socio- cultural factor is another aspect that great affect oral communication.
d)   Affective Factors
The affective side of   the   learner   is probably one of   the most Important influences on   language   learning   success or   failure.  The affective factors related    to    foreign    language    learning    emotions,    self-esteem, empathy, anxiety, attitude  and motivation. Foreign language learning is a complex task that is supectible to human anxiety which is associated with feeling of uneasiness, frustration, self-doubt and apprehension. Speaking a foreign language in public, especially in front of native speakers, is often anxiety-provoking.
These four factors play an important role in determining the success and
the failure of student in  learning  speaking. Learning to speak a foreign
language requires more that knowing its grammatical and semantic rules. Factors
affecting Adult EFL  learners oral  communication  is  the  thing  that need  to be
consider by EFL  teacher  in  order  to  provide  guidance  in  developing  competent speaker of English. Once the EFL teachers are aware of these things, he will teach in more appropriate way and it will help them to develop student speaking skill.
2.2 Teaching Speaking         
Speaking is taught so that the students have large opportunities to perform and show up their abilities. In learning a target language because if they take more exercises, it can increase their knowledge of the language well. Martin Bygate in Nunan (1987) says that speaking really depend on the routines, because these are the conversation ways of presenting information. He divides the routines into two types, information routines and interaction routines. Information routines can be subdivided into routines that are lexically expository in nature like telling story, describing something, giving a set of interaction, making a comparison and those are evaluating (giving an explanation, making justification, predicting, coming to a decision). Interaction routines can be subdivided service encounters foe examples, a job interview or social encounter such as dinner party, a coffee break at work, etc.
Luoma (2003) states that talk is an essential part of communicating, thinking and learning. It allows people to express themselves, to negotiate relationships, to give definition to their thoughts and learn to about language, themselves and their world.
People learn to language in order to be able to communicate with other both orally and written form. However, people tend to infer communication as an oral interaction or speaking. Speaking skill is very important in learning a language since it is said that the success of using language especially second and foreign language in real life situation can be determined through speaking (Nunan 1998: 1)
According to Nunan (2006: 1) what is meant by teaching speaking is to teach the learns to be able to:
1. Produce the English speech sound and pattern.
2.Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of the language.
3. Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting, audience, situation and subject matter.
4. Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence.
5. Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments.
6. Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses. Which are   called as fluency.
Furthermore, Naremore (1990: 6) explains when the students speak English; they show the knowledge and timing of space about.
2.2.1 The Techniques of Teaching Speaking
In teaching learning speaking, the teacher plays an important role, because he or she is the key success to help the students to have better English proficiency. Here the teacher can use some strategies or techniques to support the students learning in speaking in order to make the students more expressive in practicing and using the target language.
In Webster’s New College Dictionary, technique means method of doing something that skills in teaching and learning of speaking, technique can be defined as the strategy which is used by the teacher.
The use of technique in the process of teaching speaking is very essential as one of factors determined the success of the whole processes of teaching and learning. Besides that, the use of technique can promote the process of teaching and learning more meaningful and enjoyable. So that, it can encourage the students to be more creative and expressive in using language or producing any work in the target language.
According to Brown and Nation the techniques of teaching speaking divides into two types, such as:
1. Form-Focused Speaking
Brown and Nation (1997: 1) state that in the Form- Focused Speaking, the students must be exposed to details of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and so forth. It is also recognized that when learners first begin to speak in another language, their speaking will need to be base on some Form- Focused Speaking. An effective way to begin is to base speaking on some useful, simple memorized phrased and sentences. These may be greeting, simple personal description and simple question and answer. These can be practiced in repetition drill. For example, the teacher says a phrase or sentence several times and then asks the students to repeat.
2. Meaning-Focused Speaking
Further Brown and Nation (1997: 1) state that in Form-Focused Speaking, language learners should also be given opportunities to practice and used meaning-focused communication in which they must both produce and listen to meaningful oral communication. An example of a meaning-focused activity for the students is speaking by numbers. Each students is given a number and a topic. The topics could in clued family, future goals, travel, work and so forth. The students can think about their topics for a minute and then the teacher calls a number. The students with that number says two or there sentences about his or her particular topic. The speaker then calls a number and another student with that number has to ask the speaker a question or two related to the topic just spoken about. When the question is answered, the questioner calls a number and the person with that number asks another question. This continues three or four times. The speakers call the number of a new person who will speak about the topic that she or he was given the meaning. Focused speaking activity because both the speaker’s and the listeners’ attention is on the message being communicated.
Nunan (1991: 51) state that learning to speak in a foreign language will be facilitated when the students are involved activity in the activity of speaking the language by generating their own sentences when teaching speaking. The teacher should use teaching techniques to provide students with many opportunities for communicative interaction in which they may interact freely in English. Scarcella (1992) states that students need to participate in the widest possible range of situation with a variety of speakers who can help learners develop their second language proficiency.
Brown (2001: 269) states that the hardest effort in the teaching of speaking in EFL classes for beginning through intermediate level is mostly in the form of conversation and dialogue. They include mini-exchange dialogue, mini-conversation like important oral questions role-play, strip stories, oral description, prepared talk, and language games. That other are questing game, interview, making a survey, categories of preference and other conversation teaching techniques, such as discussion groups, debates and panel discussion.
Ur (1996:120) explains four elements of a successful speaking class. They are:
1. Learners talk a lot
A speaking class indicated by most of the period time allotted the activity is in fact occupied by learner talk. It seems obvious, but most time is taken up with teacher talk or pause.
2. Participation is even
A monitoring of talkative participant doesn’t dominate classroom discussion here, it is hinted that all get a chance to speak and are fairly evenly distributed.
3. Motivating is high
This is indicated by the eagerness of the learners to speak. Students are interested in the topic and have something new to say about it.
4. Language is of an acceptable level
It means that learns need to express themselves in utterances that are relevant, easy to comprehend each other and can be acceptable level language accuracy.
Klippel (1984) says there are some techniques to teach speaking. They are interview games, jigsaw tasks, ranking exercises, discussion, value clarification, problem solving activities, what if, role-play and stimulation. He adds that these techniques enable the learners to learn the form of the spoken language as well to have a direct classroom practice in communicative interaction.
In order to make the students speak in English, it also is very important to design activities which promote and facilitate the use of the target language in various ways. Any of a wide variety of exercises, activities or tasks used in the language classroom or what we call as techniques (Brown 2001 : 16) Should be designed as effective as possible to reach the objectives of the lesson. For that particular reason, therefore techniques used by the teacher should supervise the students with the ways of learning, building their knowledge through inquiry and also motivating them to keep up with the te3ask and reach particular objective.
According to Brown (2001: 275), there are several basic principles for designing speaking techniques. There are:
  1. Using techniques that cover the spectrum of learner needs, from language based focus on accuracy to message-based focus on interaction, meaning and fluency. It means that the techniques are designed to help students to perceive and use the building blocks of language within interactive and meaningful activities without being burdened with lifeless repetition drills.
  2. Providing intrinsically motivating techniques. Intrinsic motivation can benefit the students to maintain prolonged process of language learning. Therefore, variety of task and exercises should appeal to student’s ultimate goals and interest, to their need for knowledge, for status, for achieving competence and autonomy, and for “being all that they can be”.
    1. Encouraging the use of authentic language in meaningful context. Meaning that the tasks should engage the students to speak naturally using the target language within actual context and meaningful interaction such as role play, simulation, etc.
    2. Providing appropriate feedback and correction. This can initiate reflection for the students to have better awareness toward their linguistics and communicative competence. Likewise, it can prevent the students from fossilized errors.
    3. Capitalizing on the natural link between speaking and listening. Within interactive technique, speaking and listening skill are commonly taught integrated since the two skills the two skills can reinforce each other.
    4. Giving students opportunities to initiate oral communication. Part of oral communication competence is the ability to initiate conversations such as to nominate topics, to ask question, to control conversation, etc.
    5. Encourage the development of speaking strategies. Since the concept of strategic competence is one of that few beginning language students are aware of the speaking activities should accommodate the students to develop their awareness to practice strategic which real communication setting such as asking for clarification, asking someone to repeat somet6hing ,using filler, etc.
2.2.2. The problems in Teaching Speaking
Brown (2001:269) explains the difficulties in the teaching of speaking and the factors that make the difficulty in speaking. They are:
  1.   Affective Factors
One of the major obstacles learners have to overcome in learning to speak is the anxiety generated over the risks blurting things out that are wrong, stupid or incomprehensible, learners are reluctant to be judged by heaves because of the language ego that informs people ‘you are what you speak’.


  1. Interaction Effect
Learners find difficulty attempts to speak because of the interactive nature of communication. For the learner, the matter of what to say is often eclipsed by conversation of how to say things, when to speak, and other discourse constraints.
Ur (1996:121) states four problems in the speaking activities:
  1. Inhibition
Learners are often inhibited about trying to say things in a foreign language in the classroom. They are worried about making mistakes, fearful of critism or losing face, or simply shy of the attention that their speech attracts.
b. Nothing to say
Even if they are not inhibited, one of ten hers learners complains that they can’t think of anything to say, they have no motive to express themselves beyond the guilty feeling that they should be speaking.
c. Low or uneven participation.
Only one participant talk at time if he or she is to be heard, and in large group, this means that each one will have only little talking time. This problem is compounded by the tendency of some learners to dominate the activity, while others speak very little or not at all.
d. Mother tongue use
In classes where all, or a number or the learners share the mother language, they may tend to use the mother tongue because it is easier, and because they feel less ‘exposed’ if they are speaking their mother tongue.


2.3       The Nature of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL)
Contextual Teaching and Learning is learning concept where the teacher presents the real word in the classroom and support the students to relate between their own knowledge with the implementation in their daily life. In this learning teacher doesn’t only deliver learning material that form of memorizing but manage the environment and learning strategy that possible students to study (Mulyasa, 2005:137).
2.3.1.   The Philosophy of CTL
The philosophy of CTL was rooted from progressivisms of John Dewey26
John Dewey, an expert of classical education proposed the theory of curriculum
and    teaching   methodology    related    to    the    student is    experience    and    interest.
Principally,  the  students  will  learn  effectively  if  they  can  make  a
connection between  what  they  are  learning  with  the  experience  they  had,  and
also they actively involve in learning process in the classroom. John Dewey, as
quoted by Donald   freeman, said   that,” what an   individual has   learned   in   the
way of knowledge and skills in one situation becomes an instrument of
understanding and dealing effectively with the situation which follows. The process
goes on as long as life and learning continue.
The theory of Cognitivisme also influenced the philosophy of CTL. The
students will learn so well if they actively involve in the classroom activities and
have a chance to inquiry it by their selves.  Students will show their learning
achievement through  the  real things  that  they can do. Learning is regarded as an
effort or intellectual  activity  for  developing   their idea   through   introspection
activity.
Based on two theories above, the CTL philosophy was developed. CTL is
a proven concept that incorporates much of the most recent research in cognitive
science.  It  is  also  a  reaction  to  the  essentially  behaviorist  theory  that  have
dominated American education for many decades.  CTL   is promoted as   the
alternative for the new learning strategy.  CTL  emphasize the  learning  process
through “constructing” not memorizing and teaching is interpreted as an activity
of  inquiring  process  not  only  transferring  knowledge  to  the  students.  In CTL,
student   are   expected   to   develop   their   own   understanding   from   their   past
experience or knowledge  (assimilation).  It is important because  our  brain  or
human mind   functioned  as   the   instrument   for   interpreting knowledge so
that   it will have a unique sense.
Meanwhile,  several  attempts  have  been  made  to  define  the  meaning  of
CTL method.  In  the process of  searching  the meaning of CTL, writer has  found
several definitions about it from different resources.
Johnson defines CTL as follows:
CTL is an educational process that aims to help student see meaning in the academic  subject  with  the  context  of  their  daily  lives,  that  is,  with  the context  of   their  personal,  social,  and  cultural  circumstances.  To achieve this aim, the system encompasses the following eight components: making meaningful connections, doing significant work, self-regulated learning, and collaborating, critical and creative thinking, nurturing the individual, reaching high standards, and using authentic assessments.
In addition, Berns and Errickson stated that,
Contextual teaching and learning is a conception of teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter content to real world situations and motivates    students    to   make    connections   between   knowledge    and    its applications   to   their   lives as   family members, citizens,   and workers   and engage in the hard work that learning requires.

Meanwhile, The Washington State Consortium   for Contextual Teaching
and Learning, as cited in Nurhadi, formulate the definition of CTL as follows,
Contextual teaching is teaching that enables students to reinforce, expand,
and   apply   their   academic knowledge   and   skills   in   a variety  of   in-school
and out-of   school   settings   in  order   to   solve   the   stimulated or   real-world
problems.
Based on the previous four definitions,   the writer concludes that CTL is
the way or the concept of teaching that help teacher and students to relate subject
matter  to  the  real  life  situation  and  motivate  student  to  connect  and  apply  all
aspect of  learning into their role in real life. When we talked about context, most
people say that it related to their social life. In the classroom teaching, CTL means
teacher should present the student real world inside the classroom.
2.3.2 The Characteristics of CTL
Johnson, as quoted by Nurhadi, characterizes CTL into  eight important
elements as follows:
a. Making Meaningful Connections
Students   can organize   them   selves as   learners, who   learn   actively   in
improving their interest individually, person who can work
individually  or  collectively  in  a  group,  and  a  person  who  can  do learning by doing.
b. Doing Significant Work
Student can make relationship among schools and the various existing contexts in the real world as business maker and as a citizen.
c. Self-Regulated Learning
Students do the significant work; it has purpose, it has connection with
others, it has connection with decision making and it has the concrete results or products.
d. Collaborating
Students are able to work together. The teacher helps students in order to work effectively in a group and teacher helps them to understand the way how to persuade and communicate each others.
e. Critical and Creative Thinking
Students   are   able   to   apply   higher   level   thinking   critically   and
effectively.  They are able to analyze, to synthesize, to tackle the problem, to make a decision and to think logically.
f. Nurturing the Individual
Students carry on their selves, understand, and give attention, posses high
wishes, motivate and  empower  themselves.  Students can it get the success without the support from adult people. Students should respect their companion and adult person.
g. Reaching High Standards
Students know and reach the high standard. It identifies their purposes
and motivates them to reach it. Teacher shows to students how to reach what called ‘excellent’.
h. Using Authentic Assessments
Students  use  academic  knowledge  in  the  real  world  context  to  the
meaningful purposes.  For example, students may describe the academic  information  that  have  learnt  in  subject  of  science,  health, education, math, and English subject by designing a car, planning the school menu, or making the serving of human emotion or telling their experience.
These eight characteristics make CTL different from other methods. These
Characteristics became the main components in applying CTL method.  It is also
clearly seen that these eight characteristics asks the students for actively involving
in classroom activity.  Collaborating, nurturing the individual and creative and
critical Thinking ask the students to responsible for their own learning. The role of
teacher in CTL is to facilitate student to find the fact or the meaning, concept, or
principles for their selves. Once these eight characteristics applied in classroom, it
will  help  both  student  and  teachers  in  creating  a  good  atmosphere  where  the
learners have a great responsibility in achieving their success in leaning.
2.3.3. The Principle of CTL
1.  Constructivism
Constructivism is the foundation of CTL. The basic premise is that an
individual learner  must  actively  “build”  knowledge  and  skills.  However, all
advocates of constructivism agree that it is the individual’s processing of stimuli
from the environment and the resulting cognitive structure  that produce adaptive
behavior rather than the stimuli themselves. In the classroom teaching learning
process, the application of constructivism are applied in five step of learning that
are  activating  knowledge,  acquiring  knowledge,  understanding  knowledge,
applying knowledge and reflecting on knowledge. The constructivism paradigm
has led us to understand how learning can be facilitated  through certain types of
engaging, constructive  activities.  This model of learning emphasizes meaning-
making    through   active   participation    in   situated   context   socially,   culturally, historically, and politically.
2.  Inquiry
Basically, inquiry is a complex idea that means many things to many
people in any contexts.  Inquiry is asking, asking something valuable that related
to the topic discussed.  Inquiry is defined as “a seeking for truth, information or
knowledge _ seeking   information by questioning.   In   applying   inquiry   activity
in the classroom   teaching,   there   are   several   steps   that   should be   followed
that   are formulating  problem, collecting  data  through  observation, analyzing
and presenting  data  (through  written  form,  picture,  report  and  table)  and
finally, communicating   and presenting   the   result  of data   to   the   readers,
classmates and the other audients.
3.  Questioning
Questioning is the mother of contextual teaching and learning, the
beginning  of  knowledge,  the  heart  of  knowledge  and  the  important  aspect  of
learning. Sadker and Sadker, as quoted by Nurhadi, mentioned the important of
questioning technique in classroom teaching. They said,
To question well is to teach well.  In  the skillful use of  the question more than anything else  lies fine art of  teaching;  for  in  it we have  the guide  to clear  and vivid  ideas,  and  the  quick  spur  of  imagination,  the  stimulus  to thought,   the   incentive   to   action.   What‘s   in   a   question,   you   ask? Everything.  It   is   the way of   evoking   stimulating   response or   stultifying inquiry. It is in essence, the very core of teaching. The art of questioning is the art of guide learning.

Sometimes, the teacher asks to the students before, during and after the
lesson.  At other   times,   they   are posed   effectively by   the   students   to   focus
their own  lesson,  keep  them  engaged  and  help  them  monitor  their
understanding of what was learned.  In a productive teaching learning,
questioning activity are useful for checking students comprehension, solving
problem faced by students, stimulating responses to the students, measuring
student’s  curiosity, focusing student attention, and refreshing students prior
knowledge.
4.  Learning Community
In  learning  community,  the  result  of  learning  can  be  gotten  from
gathering others   and   also   can be   taken   from   sharing with   friends, other
groups, and between make out person  and not.  Actually, learning community
has the meaning   as   follows:  1).Group of   learning which   communicate   to
share   the   idea and experience, 2).Working together to solve the problem and
3).The responsibility of each member of learning group it   is sometimes forgotten
that   language classes operate as communities, each within its own collection of
shared understandings  that have been build up over time. The overall character or
each language class is created, developed, and maintained by everyone in room.
Each class member has a specific role to play, even those with ostensibly low
profile such as  ‘onlooker’ or ‘observer’ (noticing what is going on), ‘knower’
(being privy to shared  class  understanding) and follower (reacting in the same
way as everyone else to certain teacher or student initiatives).
5.  Modeling
Basically, modeling   is verbalization of   ideas,   teacher demonstrates   to
students to study and acting what the teacher need to be implemented by students.
Modeling activity can be summarized into demonstrates the teacher’s opinion and
demonstrates how does the teacher want the student to learn.
6.  Reflections
Reflection is the ways of thinking about what the students have learned
and   thinking about what   the   students have done   in   the past.  Reflection   is
figuration of activity and knowledge that just have received. Teacher need to do
the  reflections  in  the  end  of  teaching  learning  process.  In the end of teaching
learning process, teacher spends a little time and ask student to do the reflection.
The  realization  of  reflection  can  be  done  by  giving  direct  statement  about  the
information   that   acquired   in   the   lesson,   some  notes  or   journal  on   student  book, some  impression  and  suggestion  from  students  about  the  learning  process  and discussion.
7.  Authentic Assessment
Authentic   assessment   is   a procedure of   achievement   in   the CTL.
Assessments of   students’ performance   can come   from   the   teacher   and   the
students. Authentic assessment is the process of collecting the data that can give
the description of   student   learning  development.   In   the process of   learning,
not only the teacher that  can be placed to provide  accurate assessments of
students’ performance, but also  students  can be  extremely  effective at
monitoring and judging their own language production. They frequently have a very
clear idea of how  well  they  are  doing  or  have  done,  and  if  we  help  them  to
develop this awareness, we   can greatly   enhance   learning. Meanwhile,
authentic   assessment has some characteristics that are :(a) Involves real world
experience, (b) Allows access to information, (c) Encourages the use of computer,
dictionary and human resources, (d) Engages the students by relevance, (e) Uses
open-ended format, (f) Includes self-assessment and   reflection,   (g) Warrant
effort  and  practice,   (h) Identifies  strength  to  enable  students  to  show  what
they can do and (i) Make assessment criteria clearer to students.
Essentially, the question that needs to answer by authentic assessment is
“Does the students learn something?” not “What have they already known?” So,
the students are assessed through many ways, not only assessed their examination
test.
2.3. 4 The Procedure of CTL in Teaching Speaking
Seven  main  components  of  CTL  that  explained  above  are  the  main
requirements   in classroom   teaching   learning process.  Below are   the
procedures how   to   apply CTL,   including   speaking   class   activity,   in   the
classroom   teaching learning process.
1.  Improve the understanding that student will learn more effectively through
self-learning, self-inquiring, and self-constructing using their own knowledge and experience.
First, Teacher  need   to  encourage student   to  actively involve   in   learning process and use the student’s  idea and experience to conduct  the  learning and whole learning unit.
2.  do  the  inquiring  activity  to  achieved  desired  competences  in  speaking
activity.
In  this step, the  teacher presents the speaking material (e.g.  in  the form of
certain pictures or visual aid  that describes  some activities) in which the
student need to analyze it by their self. Try to challenge the students with
their own ideas and conceptions to interpret it. Allow them to present their
own   idea  and  encourage   them   to apply   their  own   ideas, experience  and
interest to direct learning process.
3.  Create learning community or learning in groups
This   step   will   help   student   to   improve   their   leadership   and   their
cooperation  among  the  student.  In this step, the students  discuss  the
material with their friends and then they present it in front of the class. To
make the  learning process more  effective,  teacher need  to  encourage  the
students to express their own ideas before the teacher did it.
4.  Questioning   as   a   learning   tool.   It   is   useful   for   improving   student’s
curiosity.
The   teachers   allow   the   students   to   ask   something   related   to   the material after  the  discussion  and  presentation  session  finished.  It  will  give  them more understanding in material discussed.
5.  Do the reflection in the end of learning to make student feel that they have
learned something.
Provide  enough  time  to  reflect,  analyze,  and  respect  all  ideas  that  are
expressed by all students. Teacher need to engage the students in searching the   information   that can  be  applied   in   solving   the  problem   in   their  own life. So, the learning process will give them many benefits in their real life.

2.4       The Nature of Questioning
Questioning is the main strategy of Contextual Learning, because knowledge usually start from questioning. In learning process, questioning is considered as teachers’ activity to support, guide, and evaluate students’ ability. Questioning is an important activity for students to dig information, analyzing and explore idea.( Nurhadi,2002:45).
In this case, Sadker (Cooper, 1990: 133) confirm the important of questioning technique in classroom learning.
“To questioning well is to teach well. In the skill use of the question more than anything else lies the find art of teaching. For in it we have the guide to clear and vivid ideas, and the quick spire to imagination, the stimulus to thought, the incentive to action, what’s in questioning, you ask? Everything. It is the way to evoking stimulating response or stultifying inquiry. It is, in essence, the very care of teaching. The art of guiding learning.”

In productive learning, questioning activity is useful for
  1. To dig information, academic or administration.
  2. To check students’ comprehension.
  3. To solve problem faced by students.
  4. To increase students’ response.
  5. To focus some things that students’ want.
  6. To encourage students’ willingness giving question more.
In other words, Orlich, et al. (1980: 193) gives some lists about the important of questioning technique in learning activity, such as:
  1. Questioning is general teaching strategy and can be applied in any subjects.
  2. Using and developing systematic questioning technique, will improve learning students’ ability.
  3. By questioning strategy student will be eager to know something and have critical thinking.
We say that questioning is one of the major tools in communication but asking the right questions is the ingredient of effective communication. Apart from this skill, we can develop other essential skills such as effective people management, interpersonal skills, and the ability to acquire better information or your learning skills. In order to ask the right questions, we may apply certain techniques in our way of questioning. However, knowing when, and when not to use them, in the conversation is also an important consideration.
2.4.1Types Questioning Technique
There are some types questioning technique, they are: open, closed and funnel question. Here are the explanation of open, closed and funnel question.
1. Open Questions
Open questions elicit longer answers. They usually begin with what, why, how. And open question asks the respondent for his or her knowledge, opinion or feelings. “Tell me” and “describe” can also be used in the same way as open questions. Here are some examples:
  •  What happened at the meeting?
  •  Why did he react that way?
  •  How was the party?
  •  Tell me what happened next.
  •  Describe the circumstances in more detail.
Open questions are good for:
  •  Developing an open conversation: “What did you get up to on vacation?”
  •  Finding our more detail: “What else do we need to do to make this a success?”
  •  Finding out the other person’s opinion or issues: “What do you think about those changes?”

2. Closed Questions
Closed ended questions are used to test a listener’s understanding as well as   in   wrapping up a discussion or when making decisions. Open questions pave way for a more open conversation and seek for more details.
Closed question usually receives a single word or very short, factual answer. For example, “Are you thirsty?” The answer is “Yes” or “No”; “Where do you live?” The answer is generally the name of your town or your address
Closed questions are good for:
  • Testing your understanding, or the other person’s: “So, if I get this qualification, I will get a raise?”
  • Concluding a discussion or making a decision: “Now we know the facts, are we all agreed this is the right course of action?”
    • Frame setting: “Are you happy with the service from your bank?”
A misplaced closed question, on the other hand, can kill the conversation and lead to awkward silences, so are best avoided when a conversation is in full flow.
  1. Funnel Questions
Funnel questioning technique is best applicable in sales where in the questioner starts from a broad or general approach and goes detailed in the process. Closed questions make a good start for this technique. Probing is another method in searching for more information. It helps a person understand an issue or a topic. One good tip in probing is to use the word “exactly” in the question.
Leading questions tend to manipulate the manner of thinking and decision making of a person. Rhetorical questions are questions that do not need answers. It simply engages the person you are talking to in the conversation.
2.4.2 Step in Good Questioning Technique
Although the following steps are more suitable in a class or a group setting, it may also be applied in casual conversation with other people. In using questioning technique, the first step is to state the question instead of calling the person’s name first unless there are only two of you in the conversation. This gives the individual time to think through the question being asked. In structuring the question, keep it clear and direct instead of being vague and ambiguous.
The question must be tailored to the level of understanding and ability of the person to be asked. Always remember to ask questions in a logical and sequential manner. If adopting a specific technique will help, then do so. Other than that, the questions should be asked at various levels, too. The next step is to address the question to the intended person. After which, allow a few seconds of pause to gather the thoughts together. Always acknowledge the response and let others offer their comments of reactions. Lastly, repeat the answer either by restating or paraphrasing it.
2.4.3   Advantages of Using Questioning Techniques
Being able to structure questions properly and ask the right ones becomes an effective method in gaining the kind of response of information that you wish to get. Apart from enhancing the learning skills, it also minimizes getting individuals into a misunderstanding. The use of probing questions clears out any assumptions and confusions. Applying the right questioning technique greatly helps in the field of managing and coaching or in whatever aspects you want to apply it to.
The Inherent Learning Benefits of Questions
1. Prequestions Guide Learner Attention
Prequestions improve overall learning when they are presented to learners soon before learning events Prequestions help learners focus on the most important learning material they subsequently encounter.
2. Postquestions Guide Later Learner Processing
How learners approach new material is affected by previous questions. For example, Sagerman and Mayer (1987) found that learners did better on verbatim questions when they had previously gotten verbatim questions and conceptual questions when they had previously gotten conceptual questions.
3. Questions Provide Repetition
Repetition is arguably the most important learning factor there is. It enables learners to remember things they’d forgotten, learn things they didn’t quite get the first time around, and strengthen and enrich what they already know. Repetition doesn’t imply verbatim repetition.


4. Questions Provide Retrieval Practice
The fundamental purpose of learning is to facilitate later retrieval of the learned information. While the term “retrieval” may conjure up images of simple recall, retrieval refers more broadly to drawing information from long-term memory into working memory.
5. Questions Provide Learners with Feedback
Questions enable learners to get feedback on their retrieval attempts. Questions not only enable learners to evaluate their retrieval performance, but they can be used to help learners overcome their misconceptions and reinforce their tentative understandings.
6. Questions Provide Instructors with Feedback
Questions not only provide learners with feedback, but they provide instructors with feedback as well.For example, Draper and Brown (2004) talk about the benefits of contingent teaching—where instructors change what they teach within a particular learning session based on learner responses to questions.
7. Prequestions Activate Prior Knowledge
One factor that propels learning is to help learners connect their new knowledge to what they’ve already learned.
8. Questions Can Grab Attention
Questions by their very nature force learners to pay attention. While the drone of a lecture is more likely to keep learners in a state of daydreaming, questions prompt learners to reorient their minds to the content of the question. This has obvious learning benefits. Without attention, there is no learning.

9. Questions Can Provide Variety
Providing learners with a variety of learning methods can create learning, attention, and motivational advantages. Research has shown that variety helps people learn better, keeps them attentive longer, and motivates them to feel more interest in the topic.
10. Questions Can Make the Learning Personal
Designing your English teacher and discussions to help your learners see how the material relates to them personally has obvious value. It helps motivate the learners to pay attention and makes it more likely that learners will relate the new learning to their long-held knowledge structures.
11. Questions Can Provide Spaced Repetitions
Repetitions of questions that are spaced apart in time are more effective than those that are massed together. Glover (1989b) found that repeating a test spaced by one day produced significantly higher retention than providing a test immediately after the material was learned.
12. Questions Can Highlight Boundary Conditions
Questions can be used to introduce learners to boundary conditions or test their knowledge of contingencies.
13. Questions Can Highlight Common Misunderstandings
Learners often come to learning experiences with naïve understandings that make it difficult for them to learn new information.
14. Questions Can Demonstrate Forgetting
Learners forget. It’s an immutable law of nature. As instructors, one of our primary goals is to ensure that our learners learn and remember.
15. Questions Can Support Transfer to Related Situations/Topics
It is rare for knowledge learned in one topic area to be retrieved from memory when another topic is being considered.
16. Questions Can Prepare Learners for Future Decision-Makin
Rarely is rote recall the primary goal of instruction. Often, we want learners to be able to retrieve information from memory to make decisions.
17. Questions Can Demonstrate Relevance to the Real World
Sometimes our learners aren’t preparing for specific future decision-making responsibilities, so the section immediately above may not seem to apply directly.
18. Questions Can Help Learners Identify Their Assumptions
Questions are excellent vehicles to prompt students to identify their assumptions. Socrates used a series of questions to help pinpoint his learners’ misunderstandings. You can use a series of questions or one question to do the same.
19. Questions Can Encourage Attention to Difficult Content
When faced with extremely difficult content in a classroom situation, some learners become overwhelmed and just tune out. This can happen intentionally or automatically.
20. Questions Can Demonstrate Learning over Time
Questions delivered in a pretest-posttest format, before and after the accompanying content, can demonstrate for learners how much they’ve learned.
21. Questions Can Provide Practice in Learning with Others
Almost all learners need to be able to work with others—and learn with others. Certainly, in today’s knowledge economy, the ability to work with others is critical to success.
22. Questions Can Be Utilized to Gather Experimental Data
This benefit doesn’t relate to all classrooms, but it can be quite powerful when it is relevant. The idea is that we can actually collect data from our learners to elucidate our topic.
23. Questions Can Prompt Out-of-the-Classroom Learning Activities
The more time learners spend learning, the more they learn. The correlation isn’t perfect—not all learning is created equal—but it’s still a strong positive correlation.
24. Questions Can Promote Thinking Skills
Helping learners digest facts, learn terminology, and understand complex topics is commendable, but not sufficient. Our learners won’t be fully prepared for their futures unless they develop thinking skills—methods to evaluate situations, solve problems, generate options, make decisions.
2.5   Implementation of Questioning Strategies for Interactive Learning
                          One of the best ways to develop your role as an initiator and sustainer of interaction is develop a repertoire of questioning strategies. In second language classrooms, where learners often do not have a great number of tools for initiating and maintaining language, your questions provide necessary stepping stones to communication. Appropriate questioning in an interactive classroom can fulfill a number of different functions (adapted from Christenbury and Kelly, 1983; Kinsella, 1991).

  1. Teacher questions give students the impetus and opportunity to produce language comfortably without having to risk initiating language themselves. It’s very scary for students to have to initiate conversation or topics for discussion. Appropriately pitched questions can give more reticent students an affective “green light” and a structured opportunity to communicate in their second language.
  2. Teacher questions can serve to initiate a chain reaction of student interaction among themselves. One question may be all that is needed to start a discussion; without the initial question, however, students will be reluctant’ to initiate the process.
  3. Teacher questions give the instructor immediate feedback about student comprehension. After posing a question, a teacher can use the student response to diagnose linguistic or content difficulties. Grammatical or phonological problem areas, for example, may be exposed through the student’s response and give the teacher some specific information about what to treat.
  4. Teacher questions provide students with opportunities to find out what they think by hearing what they say. As they are nudged into responding to questions about, say, a reading or a film, they can discover what their own opinions and reactions are. This self-discovery can be especially useful for a prewriting activity.
The implementation of questioning strategy can be applied almost in every activity. Between students and students, teacher and students, students and other people who invited in the class. Questioning activity also can be fond the students discuss, study in group, find difficulty, observation, these activities will support to student giving question.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter will give more explanation about research design, source of data, subject of the study, the data collecting method, the steps of data analysis.
3.1. Research Design
`           In this research the writer used qualitative approach. While the kind of research used by the writer was descriptive research. It is used to give description more detail about this research. According to Bogdan and Taylor that “Qualitative research is a research procedure, which produces descriptive data in the form of written words, or oral and the behavior of the people observed” (Moleong, 1988: 3). In qualitative research, the data are analyzed in the form of phenomenon on description not numeral (Arikunto, 2006:12). Thus, this research does not measurement or statistical data. The data is described in the form of words and sentences, or paragraph relating with to the text, which the researcher finds in the process of study.
In this study, the writer referred to Kinayati Djojosuroto and M.L.A Sumaryati (2003: 02) state that qualitative do not emphasize to quantities based on numbers but the depth of understanding to do interact between concepts that was examined empirically.
Therefore, the writer used a descriptive qualitative design to study developing phenomena in Institut Prima Bhakti (IPB) English Course of Pamekasan, so that the writer got valid data to conclude problems, because the writer met the object sources directly at IPB. The object could be observed, identified and the result would be scientifically analyzed.
3.2 Object of the Study
This study was conducted in the first level of Institut Prima Bhakti (IPB) English Course in Pamekasan. It had been located at Dirgahayu 22 Street. The learners were mostly senior high school. The writer had chosen first level. There were eleven students who taken an English Course and one English teacher. Most of students were shy but they still had great motivation their English especially in Speaking.
The reason why the writer conducted at IPB English Course in Pamekasan for the first level because this strategy was suitable and easy for those students. This strategy only give some simple questions for students in the first level. The questions could be given by teacher to students or students to students else. Based on the interview with the English teacher for the first level students in order to increase their English skill especially in Speaking.
3.3 Sources of Data
According to Lofland. “The main data source in qualitative research was words, action, and other data addition like documentation” (Moleong, 1988: 112).
Data source in this research was subject, where data gotten (Arikunto, 1993: 107). The main data source in this research was teachers of IPB, because they have been main factor in implementation of questioning. Data gotten was collected in form of transcript interview and observation. The writer observed the students and teacher while they were studying English give simple questions to know their activities during teaching learning process, then the writer note kinds of question the result all of their activities in the class. To complete the data, the writer made interview with the students faced by them in the implementation of questioning strategy and ask the teacher solve the students’ problem in the implementation of questioning strategy in teaching speaking for the first level at IPB.
3.4 The Data Collections Method
In collecting the data, the writer used some techniques such as observation, interview and documentation, as follow:
  1. Observation
According to Moleong (1988:3) observation that is done by researcher to see the phenomena, which exist in the field so that, the writer can collect data. This observation is one technique of collecting data that is simple.
The observation used was non-participant observation. Non-participant observation was, the writer observed someone behavior in natural condition, but the writer did not do participation to the activity in observed environment.
According to Moleong (2005:176) that, non-participant observation is useful because it had been well-planned in choosing condition of data had from observing condition. In this observation, the writer was able to acquire the data concerning with the process of teaching speaking in the implementation questioning strategy applied by the teacher in classroom.
  1. Interview
Interview is communication with given meaning to get supporting data. It is conducted by: a. interviewer, b. interviewee. Moreover, the kind of interview is structured interview and un-structured interview. Structured interview is interview at which the interviewer has already made a list of questions before. Meanwhile, unstructured interview at which the question is not arranged before. It seems like a daily conversation (Quba and Lincoln cited in Meleong 2005:190-191).
In this interview process, the writer used structured interview for the English teacher and the students for the first level in types of question used by the teacher, the difficulties faced in teaching and learning activities and how to teachers overcome the problems in the implementation of questioning strategy in teaching speaking for the first level at IPB English Course in Pamekasan.
  1. Documentation
The other technique used by the writer to collect data was documentation. Data was gotten from photo, transcript, books attendance list of students, and files which related with research focus above. Moleong (1998:141) said that in qualitative research, documentation technique is tool to collect data provided logically through opinion or acceptable theory.
  1. a.        The Step of Data Analysis
Data analysis was effort to look for the result of interview, observation and documentation to increase comprehension of writer.
In this research, the data analyzed was collection data that were gotten from observation, interview and documentation. The data of this research will be analyzed by using descriptive qualitative. They are some steps that the writer applied in analyzing the collected data. Those steps as follows:
  1. Collecting Data
The first step was done by the writer was collecting the data. Here the writer collected the data based on the problems of the Study in the chapter one by using observation, interview and documentation.
  1. Verifying data
The next step, the writer checked the data whether the data complete or not, so the writer verified the data which are gotten when there was observation which was matched with the interview result with the English teacher and the students for the first level, taking note to research types of question used by the teacher, the difficulties faced in teaching and learning activities and how to teachers overcome the problems in the implementation of questioning strategy in teaching speaking for the first level at IPB English Course in Pamekasan.
  1. Classifying the data
In this step, the writer classified the data based on types of question used by the teacher, the difficulties faced in teaching and learning activities and how to teachers overcome the problems in the implementation of questioning strategy in teaching speaking for the first level at IPB English Course in Pamekasan.
  1. Analyzing data
After classifying the data the writer tried to analyze the data systematically. The writer analyzed the data by describe the result of the data that collected from observation and interview during teaching learning process. In this phase, the writer selected through the data that relate the statement of the problem stated on chapter1, simplifying the sentences that used for the important points, transforming the data that was arranged and abstracting data that appear in written.
  1. Drawing Conclusion
The final step was to conclude the analysis done. The conclusion was the answer of the statement of the problem 1, 2, 3 stated on chapter1.

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