Selasa, 25 September 2012

LEARNING VOCABULARY AS THE BASIC OF LEARNING READING

LEARNING VOCABULARY AS THE BASIC OF LEARNING READING


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all, the writer would like to thank Allah SWT who has given the writer the strength to finish this writing. Best regards for our prophet Muhammad SAW, his Family, his friends and his members until the end of the world.
Finally, the writer hopes that this paper can be useful for the readers who are interested in this field of study. May Allah SWT, the mightiest will give them precious endowment for everything they had given to me. Amin

ABSTRACT
The writer entitled Learning Vocabulary as the Basic of Learning Reading The aim of the how many vocabulary activities a teacher can use, but there is a bit of restriction as to how to use them, especially during the first ten minutes of a reading lesson otherwise known as a 'pre-reading' part of the lesson plan.


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study
English is viewed as one of the hard materials for the students. Therefore, many interesting ways and methods are used to make English easier for the students to understand. There are so many students who cannot develop their English, even they have got this subject since junior high school or may even.
The aims of learning English at school is enabling the students to posses reading skill so that they can understand the English Text. But the students can’t understand the English Text if they didn’t know meaning of words in the text.
In this paper writer suggest about vocabulary because it be basic in learning English process. Vocabulary is one of the important things in learning English. Learning vocabulary for young learners is fundamental because the ability of the students to learn English especially to read as well as to comprehend the subject is determined by vocabulary competence. If the learners have no or lack of vocabulary, the ability to communicate and to convey their need could not be established.

B. Limitation of the Problem
The writer tries to limit the problem on Teaching Vocabulary. The writer find out the ability of the students in comprehending the meaning of unfamiliar words through context
clues and the factors influence it. The factors influence the students to comprehend the meaning of unfamiliar words through context clues are : the lack of vocabulary of the students, the less attention toward context clues to identify the words’ meanings, and the lack of guidance to analysis context clues when encountered difficult words.

C. The Purpose of Study
The purposes from this study are :
1. Helped the students find out the words of difficult.
2. Motivating students find out the meaning from the words of difficult.
3. Helped the students understanding a text.


CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FOUNDATION

A. Learning
1. Definition
Learning is acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, preferences or understanding, and may involve synthesizing different types of information.
Human learning may occur as part of education or personal development. It may be goal-oriented and may be aided by motivation. Learning as a process focuses on what happens when the learning takes place
Learning is a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one's knowledge, skills, values, and world views (Illeris,2000; Ormorod, 1995).

2. Types of Learning
1) Perceptual learning – ability to learn to recognize stimuli that have been seen before
• Primary function is to identify and categorize objects and situations
• Changes within the sensory systems of the brain
2) Stimulus-response learning – ability to learn to perform a particular behavior when a certain stimulus is present
• Establishment of connections between sensory systems and motor systems
3) Motor learning – establishment of changes within the motor system
4) Relational learning – involves connections between different areas of the association cortex
5) Spatial learning – involves learning about the relations among many stimuli
6) Episodic learning – remembering sequences of events that we witness
7) Observational learning – learning by watching and imitation other people
B. Vocabulary
1. Definition
Vocabulary is A list or collection of words arranged in alphabetical order and explained; a dictionary or lexicon, either of a whole language, a single work or author, a branch of science, or the like; a word-book.
2. Types of vocabulary
a. Reading vocabulary
A person's reading vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when reading. This is the largest type of vocabulary simply because it includes the other three.
b. Listening vocabulary
A person's listening vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when listening to speech. This vocabulary is aided in size by context and tone of voice.
c. Writing vocabulary
A person's writing vocabulary is all the words he or she can employ in writing. Contrary to the previous two vocabulary types, the writing vocabulary is stimulated by its user.
d. Speaking vocabulary
A person's speaking vocabulary is all the words he or she can use in speech. Due to the spontaneous nature of the speaking vocabulary, words are often misused. This misuse – though slight and unintentional – may be compensated by facial expressions, tone of voice, or hand gestures.
3.The importance of a vocabulary
• An extensive vocabulary aids expressions and communication
• Vocabulary size has been directly linked to reading comprehension.
• Linguistic vocabulary is synonymous with thinking vocabulary
• A person may be judged by others based on his or her vocabulary
C. Reading
1. Definition
Reading skills is the process of acquiring the basic skills necessary for learning to read; that is, the ability to acquire meaning from print.
Reading skills are specific abilities which enable a reader
• to read the written form as meaningful language
• to read anything written with independence, comprehension and fluency, and
• to mentally interact with the message.
2. Kinds of Reading
Here are some kinds of reading skills:
• Word attack skills let the reader figure out new words.
• Comprehension skills help the reader predict the next word, phrase, or sentence quickly enough to speed recognition.
• Fluency skills help the readers see larger segments, phrases, and groups of words as wholes.
• Critical reading skills help the reader see the relationship of ideas and use these in reading with meaning and fluency.
Learning to read and reading to learn are two of the most important missions of childhood. Parents, community members, and teachers must all maximize their efforts to make certain that each child has the opportunity to experience the great gift of literacy. These efforts will ensure that each individual has the prospect of a life filled with possibilities and a future of literate interaction in the world. By providing children equal access to well-designed, organized, and systematic reading instruction in our schools; we can assure ourselves that Washington students have the greatest possible chance at future academic excellence.


CHAPTER III
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Conclusion
Therefore, developing a rich listening, speaking, reading, and writing vocabulary is important in all curriculum areas. In the reading curriculum, in particular, a quality vocabulary needs to be achieved by each pupil. One reason that pupils do not read well is that they do not possess a functional vocabulary for reading. Enriching and developing pupil vocabularies should be a major goal in each academic discipline.

B. Suggestions
In this paper the writer give some suggestions. The reading teacher needs to select quality objectives for pupils to achieve in the area of vocabulary development. These objectives need to emphasize what is relevant and functional. Certainly, pupils should be able to use what has been learned. Learning should not be for its own sake but rather be for personal use and application in society. Important vocabulary terms should be acquired by pupils. Adequate time must be given in choosing what pupils need to learn. This cannot be hurried, because vocabulary development emphasizes that which must be learned in depth, not survey approaches. Objectives pertaining to vocabulary development need to stress securing the interests of pupils in ongoing lessons and units of study. Ways of developing and maintaining pupil interest in learning must be emphasized. If pupils do not reveal interest in learning, they will not achieve as optimally as possible.
Objectives to emphasize the importance of meaningful learning. If meaning is lacking, the chances are pupils will memorize terms and concepts for testing purposes only or largely. Meaning stresses the importance of pupils understanding that which has been learned. Use cannot be made of a new vocabulary term unless understanding of prerequisites in vocabulary terms is prevalent. With prerequisites, background information is needed to attach meaning to vocabulary terms being studied.
To achieve vital objectives in vocabulary development, the teacher needs to select worthwhile activities for pupils. These activities need to be selected carefully so that each pupil's achievement is as optimal as possible. Pupils should not be labeled as being fast, average, or slow learners. Rather all should be accepted and develop feelings of belonging in the group (Ediger, 1997).
For young children, it is especially good to show the book's illustrations to pupils as the library book is being read. Throughout the story time activity, pupils should understand an increased number of facts, concepts, and generalizations. Knowledge received provides background information for more complex ideas that should be forthcoming. Knowledge is sequential and cumulative for learners.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Johnson, D.D.& Pearson P.D. 1984. Teaching Reading Vocabulary. Second Edition. New York:
Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Richard, Jack. C and Platt John 1985 Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistic. Great Britain Longman Group.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_theory_%28education%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vocabulary#The_importance_of_a_vocabulary
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