Selasa, 25 September 2012

“The Reason Why Students are Speechless in Speaking Class “

“The Reason Why Students are Speechless in Speaking Class “


Introduction
Being international language, English is needed by most people in the world. Speaking skill is becoming dominant in all aspects, such as in science development, technology, and cultural convey directly or indirectly. If it is think over furthermore, it might be assumed that speaking ability is very important in our daily life because everybody needs it without exception, for example, teacher must be competence in speaking because she/he is a teacher, and we need to speak to convey the message in communication process. We should have a good skill in speaking, especially speaking English for English student. Because English is becoming the second language, and the student should mastering it.
Based on the explanation above, the writer realizes that English student sometime are the speechless in speaking class with the some reason and factors that causes this problem. In speaking, by using English is not an easy matter by students, in fact; they usually face some factors that make them hard to speak up. Usually the students are, they always being passive or speechless when they want to speak in classroom. It causes by lack of vocabularies, especially new vocabularies and idiom. It makes the students doubt to say what they want to convey. Then the anxiety of pronunciations or fear to try makes them fear for speaking, the other problems are the difficulties in understanding grammar, and then the last is environment that could influence the students’ speaking ability. Inspired by the above condition, as a fact, the writer would like to find out the analysis of English student why students are speechless in speaking class.

Theoretical Background
1. Identification of The Problems
In this analysis, the identification of the problems as follows:
1. How is peaking skill of the student in English class?
2. What are the reasons that cause the students hard to speak in English class?
2. The Limitation of the Problem
This analysis is conducted at UIKA; the object of this analysis is English student (the B five classes). And the subject of the analysis is to find out the reasons student are speechless in speaking class of B class, English department.
3. Formulation of the Problem
From the problem limitation above, the writer formulate the problem as follow:
a. The students speaking skill is quiet good, but there are many reasons that cause them fear to try to speak and being hard speaking so their speaking skill improves well.
b. There are some reasons that cause the students hard in speaking. Such as, lack of vocabularies, it is causes because the students less of open their dictionary or reading some books or journal to find out some new vocabularies and idioms. That can make them lack of ideas when they want to convey something in front of the class and doubt to speak. Another reason is the environment, motivation, and self confidence.
4. The objective of the Analysis
1. To know the students’ speaking skill
2. To know the significant reason that cause the students’ are speechless to speaking English in the classroom.
5. The Uses of the Analysis
The uses of the analysis are can be seen in two points of view, practically and theoretically. Practically, the paper can be used by the teacher as a guide to make a technique to increase students’ speaking skill. And for the student, this paper can be used as a guide to improve their speaking skill.
Theoretically, this paper gives the theory about the difficulties in speaking skill.
6. Operational Definition
Speaking is one of speech activity by using oral speech (Tarigan, in Mimi Lestari).
Speechless is unable to speak, e.g. because of deep feeling.
Reason is cause or an explanation for sth that has happened or that sb has done.
Difficulty is state of being difficult, or hard to do; an obstacle that hinders, a condition or state of affairs almost beyond one’s ability to deal with and (Wikipedia.org)


Data
1. Definition of Speaking
Speaking is the act or art of a person (Webster Dictionary, 1991). According to Tarigan in Lestari (2006:13), speaking is one of speech activity by using oral speech. Tarigan defined that’s peaking was a skill in conveying the message through oral speech. Meanwhile according to Kridalaksana in Lestari (2006:13) stated that speaking was an activity which produced language to communicate as a basic skill in speech.
Based on three definitions above, it does can be seen that speaking is the act or art and a skill in conveying the message which produced language to communicate as basic skill in speech.
In speaking activity, both speaker and listener must be capable to express their ideas to convey the message each other. In other words, there are two sides of communication happened in one time, so that the speaking activity going communicatively.
2. Basic Types of Speaking
From a pragmatic view of language performance, listening and speaking are almost always closely interrelated. Five categories of speaking performance assessment task bellow:
1. Imitative: is a one end of continuum of types of speaking performance is the ability to simple parrot back (imitate) a word or phrase or possibly a sentence.
2. Intensive: is a second type of speaking frequently employed in assessment context is the production of short stretches of oral language designed to demonstrate competence in a narrow band of grammatical, phrasal, lexical or phonological relationship.
3. Responsive: its include interaction and test comprehension but at the somewhat limited level of very short conversation, standard greeting and small talk, simple request and comments.
4. Interactive is the difference between responsive and interactive speaking is in the length and complexity of the interaction, which sometimes includes multiple exchanges and or multiple participants.
5. Extensive (monologue): is extensive oral production tasks include speeches, oral presentation, and story-telling, during which the opportunity for oral interaction from listener is either highly limited or ruled out together.
3. Speaking in Context
Speakers have a great range of expressive possibilities at their command. Apart from the actual words that the speakers use can vary speaker’s intonation and stress which helps them to show which part of speaker saying is more important. By varying the pitch and intonation in speaker voice, speaker can clearly convey their attitude to what they are saying; too, speaker can indicated interest or lack of it, for example and speaker can show whether they wish to be taken seriously.
At any point in a speech event speaker can rephrase what they are saying they can speed up or slow down. This will be often being who will show through a variety of gestures, expression, and interruption that they do understand. In a face interaction the speaker can use whole range of facial expressions, gesture and general body language to help to convey the message.
4. The Purpose of Speaking
Speaking has so many functions nowadays as follow:
1. To utter or articulate sounds, as human beings; to express thoughts by words; as, the organs may be so obstructed that a man may not be able to speak.
2. Speaking used to express opinions; to say; to talk; to converse.
3. Speaking used to convey sentiments, ideas, or intelligence, as if be utterance; as, features that speak of self-will.
4. Speaking used to utter with the h; to pronounce; to utter articulately; as human being.
5. Speaking used to utter in a word or words; to say; to tell; to declare orally; as to speak the truth; to speak sense.
6. Speaking used to declare; to proclaim; to publish; to make known; to exhibit; to express in anyway.
5. Speaking Situation
Interactive speaking situation include face-to-face conversations and telephone calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner. Some speaking situations are partially interactive.
6. Oral Presentation
Many people feel nervous about speaking to an audience, but oral presentation can be successful with good planning and a systematic approach as follow:
1. Speaking to an Audience
At some stage in studies, we will need to give a formal presentation. Planning, structuring, preparing, and presenting.
2. Body Language
Body language make the conversation or presentation in oral more easily and comprehend, make eyes contact with the person managing the discussion. Sitting opposite the tutor may make easier sitting behind other people, or right the back of the room, will definitely make it much harder.
3. What to Say
In oral presentation, we should think about the language to use when we are taking the floor in a discussion.
4. Interruption In oral presentation, there are times when we need to break in while someone else in speaking in order to make an important point.


Analysis
Based on the analyzing of the students’ why are student speechless in speaking class that they sometimes or not really like speaking class, then they not really fluent in speaking English, so they are seldom communicating by using English. The students always find the difficulties when they want to speaking English, and then based on the statement the students, the environment influence to their speaking skill. Here the common of reasonable that always find by the students:
Difficulties The Reasons
Vocabulary Lack of vocabulary (new words)
Grammar The difficulties in using particular tenses in speaking.
Ideas Lack of ideas
Anxiety Feel fear to try (to speak in front of the class)
Environment Need the good environment
Self confidence Low self confidence to speak in front of the class

Based on the table above, there are the explanations about those problems:
Vocabulary according to Merriam Webster Dictionary (2008), vocabulary is a list or collection of words and phrases usually alphabetically arranged and explained or defined. The students usually lack of new vocabularies in speaking, so when they are want to speak out, they cannot speak fluently.
Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of a given natural language, and as such a field of linguistic (www. The Brain.com). when the student arrange the words to speak, they t with their tense or word structure that they will use in speaking.
Ideas is the material from the through that will transfer trough speaking. The students will lose their ideas if they are less of reading some books or journals. But the ideas will flow smoothly if they are reading more.
Self-Confidence is the beliefs of self ability.
Self-confidence is divided into two categories, and they are:
-Anxiety: the students in English class usually afraid to speak up front of the class because they fear to make mistakes in speaking.
-Environment: environment can give bad or good effect to the students’ speaking skill. Sometime the students doubt to speak up because the environment, they can feel shy to speak in front of much of people or public.




Conclusion and Suggestion
I. Conclusion
The students of English Department of University of Ibnu Khaldun usually find some problems or reason why they are speak speechless, especially when the lesson is running. That reason is sometimes or not really like speaking class, then they not really fluent in speaking English, so they are seldom communicating by using English. The students always find the difficulties when they want to speaking English. Then based on the statement of students, the environment influence to speaking skill. Then the problems that make them hard to speak are
First, vocabulary. The students usually lack of new vocabularies in speaking, so when they are want to speak out, they cannot speak fluently. Second is Grammar, when the students arrange the words to speak. They doubt with their tense or word structure that they will use in speaking. Third are ideas, the students will e their ideas if they are less of reading some books or journals? But the ideas will flow smoothly if they are reading more. The fourth is self- confidence, self- confidence is divided into two categories, they are :
-Anxiety: the students in English class usually afraid to speak up front of the class because they fear to make mistakes in speaking.
-Environment: environment can give bad or good effect to the students’ speaking skill. Sometime the students doubt to speak up because the environment, they can feel shy to speak in front of much of people or public.
2. Suggestion
Based upon the analysis that was performed at English speaking class of University of Ibnu Khaldun(B class). The writer would like to propose suggestion as follow: As a teacher, they should be active and communicative in classroom. And then give motivation and feed back to the student. Then, the teacher should give the warmness in classroom environment, so the student feels comfort and they can raise their self-confidence. And then the student should try more by reading some books or journals so that they have ideas to communicative especially speaking in English. And the last the student should try to practice more each other.


Reference
Brown, Gillian and George Yule, Teaching the Spoken Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Febriana, Reni.2009. Analysis of Student’ Difficulties in Speaking Skill in English Class, a research paper. UNTIRTA Serang: Unpublished.
Gay, L. R Educational Research Competencies for Analysis and Application. Florida International University. 1992.
Hutchinson, Tom and Alan Waters, English for Specific Purposes; a learning-centred approach, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Seventh Printing 1992.
Lestari, Mimi.2006. The Influence of Student’s Speaking Ability at the Second Grade of SMPN3 Cilegon, a research paper. UNTIRTA Serang: Unpublished.
Unknown, Let’s Speak English;Learning Spoken English ..in half time. Cetakan Pertama, English is Easy Center, 2009.
Webster new world Dictionary, third college edition 1991, New York. Prentice Hall.
GURU KREATIF

0 komentar:

Posting Komentar

Arsip Blog