Selasa, 25 September 2012

STORYTELLING THROUGH PICTURE IN DEVELOPMENT OF SPEAKING SKILL


STORYTELLING THROUGH PICTURE
IN DEVELOPMENT OF SPEAKING SKILL


INTODUCTION
Nowadays we come to the globalization era. English is one of the language in the world that master in many various field globally. English is a media for communicating both speaking and writing. Now, many companies have policy to their employments to have English both oral or and written. And English also has role in transferring science and technology. English has four skills; reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Speaking is useful for language acquisition provided that student more or less understand what they speak, the more they speak, the better they get at it. Speaking is an activity by someone to communicative with other. One if the language skills that have to master by student in learning a foreign language like English is speaking. Many students find difficulties in speaking English. Some factors are fear of making mistakes, fear of be laughed at their friends, and having less confidence of their own ability. Therefore, teacher should help the student to overcome this problem by motivating them to speak. For this reason, teacher should use effective teaching methods that encourage student to take a part activity in every activity. The teaching-learning process should involve not only between teacher and student, but also between student and student. English language teacher should also be able to play their role as facilitator for student in their attempt to acquire the spoken language. In the sense that English language teacher should facilitate student in learning the spoken language by giving many oral practices. It is becoming a challenging task for teacher to establish a successful language classroom. Foreign language class have to incorporate playful dimension, thus possibility for making the class as an instance of language and a moment of fun become a key element of successes in language class. There are many ways to make a fun activity in conversation class. Using picture, card, and other visual aids usually add a great joy to class. Language teacher use them as meaningful teaching aids in order attract students’ attention, facilitate them to understand the lesson better, and can rude students’ boredom also allow students to interact with other naturally and may crate good competition among them. In this paper, outer is attentions is using picture to help and stimulate student in story telling ability, especially oral speaking.
THEORYTICAL BACKGOTUND

A. Definition of Speaking
Brown and Yule stated in their book. “Speaking is to express the needs request, information, service, etc.” ¬The speakers say word to the listener not only to express what in their mind but also to express what he needs whether information service. Most people might spend of their everyday life in communicating with other. Revell defines communication as follow: “Communication, of ideas, of opinions, of feelings.” Therefore, communication involves at leas two people where both sender and receiver need communicate to exchange information, ideas, opinions, views, or feelings.
Meanwhile, Jones stated, “Speaking is a form of communication.” We can say that the speaker must consider the person they are talking to as listeners. The activity that person does primary based on particular goal. So, it is important that everything we wants to say is conveyed in an effective way, because speaking is not only producing sounds but also a process of achieving goals that involves transferring messages across. Jone said, “How you say something can be important as what you say in getting your meaning across.” Therefore, speaking process should pay attention how to say as well as to whom appropriately. “How you say something ca be important as what you say in getting your meanings across.” Ideas, opinions, views, or feelings. Speaking is an activity by someone to communicate with other. It takes place very where and has become part of our daily activities. When someone speaks, he or she interacts and uses the language to express his or her ideas, feelings, and thought. He or she also shares information to other trough communication.


B. Definition of Storytelling
Story is (about) an account of event, real or imagined. Based on definition, explain the story is possible occurrences have ever happened or in the form of fantastic stories which made impressing happened.
Kisah, dongeng, sebuah tutur kejadian yang melukiskan suatu proses terjadinya peristiwa, karanagn yang menyajikan kejadian-kejadian, lako yang diwujudkan dalam atu pertunjukan, drama, film dan lain sebagainya.

Therefore that story was made so that people reading, hear or see can becoming interesting. Storytelling is a feature of every country's culture. It is loved by children and adults. It inspires imagination; it is natural part of learning. The sources can be found everywhere (friends, family, fairytales, myths, legends, television, films, magazines, newspapers, world religion, internet, music, songs, and students). According to Anne Pellowski storytelling is the art or craft of narration stories in verse or prose, as performed or led before the live audience; the stories narrated may be spoken, chanted, or sung, with or without musical, pictorial, or other accompaniment and may be learned from oral, printed, or mechanically recorded sources; one of its purposes may be entertainment.

FINDING DATA
Here is I am trying to show you an example of speaking lesson that use storytelling through picture method in development of it.
A. The Picture


B. The Story Telling
One upon time, there was a fisher man named Sahalah. Every day he went to the rice filed, and sometime went to the forest for looking the cordwood then he bartered with the food at emporium. One day he bounded to fishing after finished his work for eat at those day, when afternoon came, he started to fish at a river behind his worked place. Those day may he was unfortunately, because, till he got hopeless there was not any fish that pounced his fishing. Suddenly he was surprise because his fishing was pounced a fish, and he was really happy when know that he got a big golden fish. But at the time he socked because the fish was able to speak and be conveyed become a beautiful girl. And he fall in love to her then he proposed married to her. She deals with provisions that he promise would not tell anything to everyone about her background. They married and have two daughters. Every day their daughter always delivered food to the farmer filed for his lunch. One time before they delivered lunch for their father, they played and forgot to delivery lunch for their father. When Sahala known that his both daughter did not deliver his lunch because they had been played, he was be very angry and say “You are exactly like a fish daughter!” When their father said like that, they shock, cried and run to their mother. They told all of what happened and the father said that they were daughter a fish. She felt sad that her husband had broken his promise. She told her daughter to run up the hills because a huge disaster was about to come. When her daughter left, she prayed. Soon there was a big earthquake followed by non-stop pouring rain. The princess also ran from the house, and each footprint she left became a natural spring. The whole area got flooded and became Lake named Lake Toba. The princess turned into a fish again and the man became the island of Samosir (the big island on the middle of Lake Toba).




ANALYZING
Storytelling is an effective educational tool that features strongly across all cultures since human language evolved. Today, it is rarely heard in conventional learning environments. This paper describes an educational program based on storytelling, and trying to show that storytelling has the ability to build a greater sense of community, enhance knowledge and memory recall, support early literacy development, and expand creative potential in students. This program explores storytelling’s potential for this through picture as aids. Conclusively, it is argued that storytelling has a highly effective role to play in the education of students. Storytelling is a feature of every country's culture. It is loved by children and adults. It inspires imagination; it is natural part of learning. The sources can be found everywhere (friends, family, fairytales, myths, Legends, television, films, magazines, newspapers, world religion, internet, Music, songs, and students).

Why is storytelling Important
Storytellers have played an important role in every culture. Storytelling has been an art form and a communication system long before written language. Stories are often shared around a campfire, at bedtime or during spare time. They are often about the history, migration from region to region, heroes, friends, ‘duppies’ and the past. Stories are media through which children were educated. They will learn in great detail what they need to know in order to survive and improve their lives. According to Anne Pellowski storytelling is the art or craft of narration stories in verse or prose, as performed or led before the live audience; the stories narrated may be spoken, chanted, or sung, with or without musical, pictorial, or other accompaniment and may be learned from oral, printed, or mechanically recorded sources; one of its purposes may be entertainment.

Development Speaking in Storytelling
As students tells stories and listen to those told by others, listening and speaking skills are developed. Storytelling offers different experiences from story reading. Parents who enjoy reading stories to children often fail to tell stories. Children who cannot sit still for the reading of a story often sit attentively for storytelling. So a reading of a story is not a storytelling. Telling stories can help in:
a) Sharing and creating a common experience in storytelling aids in the development of a student’s ability to interpret events beyond his immediate experience.
b) Introduce the students to oral language patterns. They need wide experience.
c) Contribute to the social and cognitive development through shared experiences to feel joy for another happiness or sadness for their misfortunes.
d) Aid in development of an ethical value system.
e) Introduce well-known tales which all well-informed people should know.
f) Aid in vocabulary development.
g) Entertain and amuse the students itself.
h) Help the child appreciate his own cultural heritage, as well as the heritage of others.

Choosing a Story
When the teacher prepares himself for the class, where he will tell a story, he has to prepare himself properly. But where and how a story can be found? Here are some hints of choosing stories for storytelling. The teacher should:
a) Choose only the best stories, stories by virtue of style; theme and plot beg to be told.
b) Choose stories from all genres – legends, fantasy, biography, poetry etc.
c) Choose a story which speaks to him personally (a story is not worth telling since the teacher's emotional involvement is often a keynote to a successful presentation)
d) Know his intended audience – age, interests, attention span, previous experience with stories (trial and error may be the first guide to matching a story with audience to find out what works well for the teacher and the students)
e) Read widely within all areas of literature.
f) Develop stories which fit the teacher's personal storytelling and meet his needs.
g) Locate books, cassettes/records/CDs and other forms of media devoted to storytelling.
h) Attend storytelling conferences and performances to listen the stories done by master storytellers.

Why Storytelling (more reasons)?
Gaining Verbal Skills
Becoming verbally proficient can contribute to a student's ability to resolve interpersonal conflict nonviolently. Negotiation, discussion, and tact are peacemaking skills. Being able to lucidly express one's thoughts and feelings is mportant for a child's safety. Clear communication is the first step to being able to ask for help when it is needed.

Imagination
Both telling a story and listening to a well-told tale encourages students to use their imaginations. Developing the imagination can empower students to consider new and inventive ideas. Developing the imagination can contribute to self- confidence and personal motivation as students envision themselves competent and able to accomplish their hopes and dreams.

Passing on Wisdom
Storytelling based on traditional folktales is a gentle way to guide young people toward constructive personal values by presenting imaginative situations in which the outcome of both wise and unwise actions and decisions can be seen.

CONCLUSION

Educators have long known that the arts can contribute to student academic success and emotional well being. The ancient art of storytelling is especially well-suited for student exploration. As a folk art, storytelling is accessible to all ages and abilities. No special equipment beyond the imagination and the power of listening and speaking is needed to create artistic images. As a learning tool, storytelling can encourage students to explore their unique expressiveness and can heighten a student's ability to communicate thoughts and feelings in an articulate, lucid manner. These benefits transcend the art experience to support daily life skills. In our fast paced, media-driven world, storytelling can be a nurturing way to remind students that their spoken words are powerful, that listening is important, and that clear communication between people is an art.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brown, Gillian & Yule, George. (1989): Teaching the Spoken Language: Approach Based on the Analysis of Conversational English. Australia: Cambridge University Press.
Cullingford, C. (1995): The Effective Teacher. London: Cassell.
Indrawan W.S, Kamus Lengkap Bahasa Indoesia.Jobang: Litas Media.
Jones, Rhodi. (1989): Speaking and Listening. London: The Bath Press.
Revell, Jane: Teaching Technique for Communicative English. London Macmillan: Press Ltd.
Scrivener, J. (1994): Learning Teaching, Heinemann, Oxford
www.storynet.comm
http://www.scribd.com/doc/22055579/SPEAKING-THROUGH-THE-STORY-JOKE-FOR-DEVELOPING-SPEAKING-SKILL.
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