Senin, 24 September 2012

TEACHING HOW TO DIFFERENCIATE THE USE OF DO AND DOES IN SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

TEACHING HOW TO DIFFERENCIATE THE USE OF DO AND DOES IN  SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


CHAPTER I
INTODUCTION
By learning more about grammar, we begin to understand how words combine to form sentences. The rules and mechanics of grammar are also essential to ensuring that we are prepaying the intended meaning, as we explore the sense and contexts of literature. In these books, you'll find introductions that should start you on your way to understanding the rules and mechanics of grammar.
We unconsciously use grammar all the time when we use language for speaking, listening, reading and writing. If we want to improve our English language abilities, there is no escape from addressing grammar issues. White Smoke’s all-in-one grammar software helps you take care of your grammar needs as you write your texts so you actually learn from your own ongoing practice. Featuring an advanced grammar checker, an innovative contextual spell checker, and patented text enrichment, you can be sure that your writing is grammatically correct. Grammar explains how the language should be structured, using various categories
Grammar topics are usually sorted in books into word grammar and sentence grammar. Word grammar sections are further divided according to the different parts of speech - content words, containing verbs, nouns, adjective and adverbs; and structure words, containing determiners, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. Sentence grammar relates to the construction of phrases, clauses and full sentences, all the way up to paragraphs and full texts.



CHAPTER II
TEORITICAL BACKROUND
Grammatical tense is a temporal linguistic quality expressing the time at, during, or over which a state or action denoted by a verb occurs. Tense is one of at least five qualities, along with mood, voice, aspect, and person, which verb forms may express. Tenses cannot always be translated from one language to another. While verbs in all languages have typical forms by which they are identified and indexed in dictionaries, usually the most common present tense or an infinitive, their meanings vary among languages.
Uses of Do, Does and Did
In the simple present tense, do will function as an auxiliary to express the negative and to ask questions. (Does, however, is substituted for third-person, singular subjects in the present tense.
• I don't study at night.
• She doesn't work here anymore.
• Do you attend this school?
• Does he work here?
These verbs also work as "short answers," with the main verb omitted.
• Does she work here? No, she doesn't work here.
With "yes-no" questions, the form of do goes in front of the subject and the main verb comes after the subject:
Forms of do are useful in expressing similarity and differences in conjunction with so and neither.
• My wife hates spinach and so does my son.
• My wife doesn't like spinach; neither do I.
Do is also helpful because it means you don't have to repeat the verb:
• Larry excelled in language studies; so did his brother.
• Raoul studies as hard as his sister does.
The so-called emphatic do has many uses in English.
a. To add emphasis to an entire sentence: "He does like spinach. He really does!"
b. To add emphasis to an imperative: "Do come in." (actually softens the command)
c. To add emphasis to a frequency adverb: "She always does manage to hurt her mother's feelings."
Negative Sentences in the Simple Present Tense
To make a negative sentence in English we normally use do not or does not with all verbs EXCEPT To Be and Modal verbs (Can, might, should etc.).
Affirmative: You speak French.

Negative: You do not speak French.
You will see that we add do not between the subject and the verb. We use Do not when the subject is I, you, we or they.
Affirmative: He speaks German.

Negative: He doesn't speak German.
When the subject is he, she or it, we add does not between the subject and the verb to make a negative sentence. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the negative sentence. We will see the reason why below.
Negative Contractions
Don't = Do not

Doesn't = Does not
I don't like meat = I do not like meat.
There is no difference in meaning though we normally use contractions in spoken English.
Word Order of Negative Sentences
The following is the word order to construct a basic negative sentence in English in the Present Tense using Do not or Does not.
Subject don't/doesn't Verb* The Rest of the sentence
I / you / we / they don't have / buy
eat / like etc. cereal for breakfast
he / she / it doesn't
*Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = the infinitive without TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive to have it is just the have part.
Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO. For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc.
Examples of Negative Sentences with Do not and Does not:
You do not speak Arabic.
John does not speak Italian.
We do not have time for a rest. It does not move.
They do not want to go to the party.
She does not like fish.
Questions in the Simple Present Tense
To make a question in English we normally use Do or Does. It has no translation in Spanish though it is essential to show we are making a question. It is normally put at the beginning of the question.
Affirmative: You speak English.

Question: Do you speak English?
You will see that we add DO at the beginning of the affirmative sentence to make it a question. We use Do when the subject is I, you, we or they.
Affirmative: He speaks French
.Question: Does he speak French?
When the subject is he, she or it, we add DOES at the beginning to make the affirmative sentence a question. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the question. We will see the reason why below.
We DON'T use Do or does in question that have the verb To Be or Modal Verbs (can, must, might, should etc.)

Word Order of Questions with Do and Does
The following is the word order to construct a basic question in English using Do or Does.
Do/Does Subject Verb* The Rest of the sentence
Do I / you / we / they have / need
want etc. a new bike?
Does he / she / it
*Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = the infinitive without TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive to have it is just the have part. Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO. For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc.
Examples of Questions with Do and Does:
Do you need a dictionary?
Does Mary need a dictionary?
Do we have a meeting now?
Does it rain a lot in winter?
Do they want to go to the party?
Does he like pizza?
Short Answers with Do and Does
In questions that use do/does it is possible to give short answers to direct questions as follows:

Sample Questions Short Answer
(Affirmative) Short Answer
(Negative)
Do you like chocolate? Yes, I do. No, I don't.
Do I need a pencil? Yes, you do. No, you don't.
Do you both like chocolate? Yes, we do. No, we don't.
Do they like chocolate? Yes, they do. No, they don't.
Does he like chocolate? Yes, he does. No, he doesn't.
Does she like chocolate? Yes, she does. No, she doesn't.
Does it have four wheels? Yes, it does. No, it doesn't.


CHAPTER II
ANALYSIS DATA
Analysis is used to know the error about the best. The writer will know the fails to account the data or how far the writers do the research. How practice can damage your English? There are 5 steps:
1. Practice
To be well in speaking English we must study hard more and more, to improve our skill. And remember that we must practice and practice in daily and every time because it is the key to success in speaking English.
2. Stop making mistakes
We have said that you need practice to learn English. We have also said that when you practice, you reinforce your mistakes. You can speak and write with almost no mistakes, too.
3. practice make perfect
If you make mistakes, that means you don’t know how to say things in English. You need to learn and you must read and listen to correct English sentences.
4. Get better by practicing
We must make that practice in speaking English is our habit in our daily activities because it make our English be better in every day.
5. Do not afraid to make mistakes
You must try to be more careful by using the rules and if you still make mistake more than one you must study hard and more practice. Instead, try study more by reading and listening in English.
English is the international language in the world. With speaking English we can easily communicate with another people, but there is process to be fluent in speaking English well, there are we must know how to speak English well with the way we must study hard about pronunciation and practice it, vocabulary, reading, especially in grammar because grammar is very important in English like how to make sentence and speaking English well. Grammatical tense is a temporal linguistic quality how to express the time at, during, or over a state or action denoted by a verb occurs.
Tense is one of another quality, along with mood, voice aspect, and person, to express verb forms. Tense also can not always or usually be translated from one language to another language. To make a negative sentence in English we usually use do not or does not with all verbs except To be and Model verbs like can, might , should, and so on.
We must use do not when the subject is I, you, we or they than you will know or see that we add do not between the subject and the verb. But if the subject is he, she or it, we add does not between the subject and the letter s at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence because it is the third person disappears in the negative sentence.
For example: Affirmative: He speaks German
Negative : He does not speak German
Word order of negative sentence is the word order to construct a basic negative sentence in English in the present tense by using Do not and Does not. We must remember that infinitive is the verb before it is changed and it begins with To. For example, to eat, to sleep, to go, to play and so on. There is also the example of negative sentence with do not and does not:
They do not want to go to the party.
She does not study to get a good result.
To make a question in English we usually use do and does in simple present tense. It is normally put in the beginning of the question. We must add do in the question, when the subject I, you, we or they.
For example: Affirmative: You speak English
Question: Do you speak English?

And we must add does in question when the subject is he, she, or it.
For example: Affirmative: He speaks French
Question : Does he speak French?











CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION
Tense is one of at least five qualities, along with mood, voice, aspect, and person, which verb forms may express. Tenses cannot always be translated from one language to another. In the simple present tense, do will function as an auxiliary to express the negative and to ask questions. (Does, however, is substituted for third-person, singular subjects in the present tense.
To make a negative sentence in English we normally use do not or does not with all verbs EXCEPT To Be and Modal verbs (Can, might, should etc.).
Affirmative: You speak French.
Negative: You do not speak French.
We use Do not when the subject is I, you, we or they.
When the subject is he, she or it, we add does not between the subject and the verb to make a negative sentence. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the negative sentence. We will see the reason why below
Affirmative: He speaks German.
Negative: He doesn't speak German
To make a question in English we normally use Do or Does. It has no translation in Spanish though it is essential to show we are making a question. It is normally put at the beginning of the question.
Affirmative: You speak English.
Question: Do you speak English?

REFERENCES
• Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge University. Great Britain: 1985.
• Krohn, Robert. English sentence structure. The University of Michigan Press. The United State of America: 1971.
• Seidl, Jennifer. Grammas in Practice. Oxford University Press. Great Britain: 1981.
GURU KREATIF

0 komentar:

Posting Komentar

Arsip Blog