Rabu, 09 Juli 2014



Background of the Analysis
Language is a system of communication with other people using sounds, symbols, and words in expressing or conveying a meaning and idea or thought. Language can be used in many forms, primarily through oral and written communications as well as using expressions through body language. From that definition, language can be communicated into three ways: a. Spoken language, b. Written language, and c. Gestures. In spoken language, it includes the speaker and listener. It means that the human organs of speech produce the language through the sound. In written language, it includes the writer and reader. It means that the communication occurs by using the written symbols and the reader interprets these symbols. In gestures, it means that the movement of parts of the body is the form of communication.
English is used as an international language wherever we go. People can communicate and interact with other people from different countries by using English. It is a foreign language which is widely used as a tool of communication in the various field, such as economy, politics, education, technology, etc.
English should be learnt by anybody because there are many books or scientific books and newspapers are available in English. That’s why it is important for the students to learn it. As a foreign language, English is still difficult to be learnt by most of the students because English does not have the same grammatical or structural system as Indonesian does. For example, Indonesian structure does not recognize to be and the uses
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of tenses. English is an obligatory subject in elementary school, junior high school, senior high school, and university level. Student’s ability or knowledge is one of the teaching and learning process at school.
Learning a language is supported by learning the components of the language, such as vocabulary, structure, pronounciation, and spelling. Lado (1962:163) states, “Learning a foreign language can be defined for testing purpose not only as learning to understand and be understood, but more specially as learning to use the structural units and patterns of the foreign language in valid situation”. From this definition, it can be said that learning a foreign language is not just enough to understand the language but it is necessary to measure to what extend the learners’ ability to master the grammar or structure correctly in any situation.
One of the topic in English grammar that must be learnt by the students is about passive voice. Passive voice is the verb form, where the subject receives the action. Thomson and Martinet (1975:176) stated that the passive of an active tense is formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the active verb and adding the past participle of the active verb.
For example: - They sent James to prison for two years (Active)
James was sent to prison (by) them for two years (Passive)
From the example above, in a simple rule, the sentence in the active voice can be transformed to the passive voice in which the subject in the active becomes the object in the passive voice and object in active becomes subject in passive voice. The passive of an active tense is formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the active verb and adding the past participle of the active verb. The subject of the active verb becomes the
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agent of the passive verb. The agent is very often to be mentioned, when it is mentioned, it precedes by “by” and placed at the end of the sentence.
There are some previous researchers who had ever analyzed about passive voice at SMA (Sekolah Menengah Atas) that is at the second year students’ ability to master passive voice. But, some of them always suggested for the readers who are interested in analyzing about passive voice so that the next researchers do their research at the second year students’ ability to master passive voice at different schools.
Considering that explanation, I choose SMK Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar that is the second year students of this school as the population. SMK Negeri 2 is one of the state schools in Pematangsiantar which located on Jln. Asahan 04 Pematangsiantar. It has 950 students. The first year are 400, the second year are 200, and the third year students are 350.
In Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) bahasa Inggris SMK stated that the curricular objective of teaching English to the students is to improve their ability in the four language skills, namely: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In their curriculum, the first, the second, and the third year students get English subject twice in a week for each class and the time is 3 x 45 minutes for one meeting. The second year students of SMK have some topics of English grammar that have to be learnt for one year, they are tenses: simple present, simple past, past perfect, and future tense,question tags, gerund, personal pronouns, passive voice, reported speech, adjective clause, conjuntions, noun clause, degrees of comparison, and imperatives . Based on that curriculum, they learnt passive voice in the last semester. Because I want to know the second year students’ ability at SMK Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar to master or understand
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about passive voice. That’s why, as the study of my thesis I want to describe and analyze to what extend the second year students’ ability at SMK Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar to master passive voice.
Problem of the Analysis
The problem of this research is formulated as follows:
“To what extend are the second year students of SMK Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar able to master passive voice?”
Objective of the Analysis
In relation to the problem already stated the objective of this research is to find out to what extend the second year students’ ability at SMK Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar to master passive voice.
Scope of the Analysis
The scope or limitation of this analysis is on the second year students’ ability at SMK Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar to master passive voice in Simple Past Tense.
Significance of the Analysis
The result of this research is expected to be useful for some sides.
To know to what extend the second year students’ ability at SMK Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar to master or understand about passive voice.
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This research is also hoped as the source of information for those who are interested in this topic.
Method of the Analysis
In writing this thesis, I applied two kinds of research, that is library and field research. In library research, I collect and read some kind of English grammar books as the guide books and references. In field research, I collect the data by giving the students a test about passive voice that will be answered directly by the students. The method that is applied in this research are descriptive qualitative and quantitative. In collecting the data I used descriptive qualitative method. Djajasudarma (1993:8) stated that descriptive qualitative method is a method that is used to describe the data systematically and accurately. In analyzing the data, I used descriptive quantitative method. Hadjar (1996:32) states that quantitative approach presents the results in description of number. Furthermore, I will examine the data and analyze it so that I can get a conclusion to what extend the second year students’ ability at SMK Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar to master passive voice.
Population and Sample
The population of this research is the 2007/2008 second year students of SMK Negeri 2 Pematangsiantar. There are six classes altogether and four classes consist of 33 and two classes 34 students. So, all the students of second year are 200 students. Considering that the number of the students are great enough, and since there is the limitation of time, energy, and fund, not all the students of the second year become the
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sample of this research. I take out 15 % of the students from each class as the respondents in order to get an accurate conclusion of that test. As Arikunto (2002:112) says, “If the population consists of a large number, the sample can be taken from 10 % - 15 % or 20 % - 25% or more, it depends on the ability of researcher by considering time, energy, and fund”. So, 15 % of the students from each class are: 15/100 x 34 = 5 students. I will give lottery to each classes to pick five students to present their class.
The number of the students who will be the respondents are 6 classes x 5 students = 30 students. It means that the percentage of the sample is 30/200 x 100 % = 15 %. So, in conducting this research random sampling will be applied based on Gay (1984:104) states that random sampling is the best single way to obtain a representative sample. Random sampling is presented by distributing and giving a paper to the students. The students who get the paper with the word “sample” become the respondents or sample.
Review of Related Literature
In doing this thesis, I use some books which related to the topic in supporting and making this thesis better. Some of them are mentioned as follows:
Siti (2003) in her thesis “A Contrastive Analysis Between English And Toba Batak Language In Passive Voice”. She concluded that there are similarities of passive voice of both language, when they are used in Tenses, namely: Simple Present Tense, Simple Past Tense, and Simple Future Tense, or have the similarities in terms of function of passive voice that is as a subject, verb, and object. In terms differences, it was found that the passive voice in English and TBL are different. In English the form of passive
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voice can be transformed to the Toba Batak Language especially in form, but in TBL passive voice can not be transformed into English (not all).
Anggiat (2006) in his thesis “A Study On The Passive Voice Mastery Of The Second Year Students At SMA KAMPUS Pematangsiantar”. After the writer analyzed the data, finally he interpreted that “ The second year students at SMA KAMPUS Pematangsiantar are able in mastering passive voice that is Simple Present Tense”. It is shown from the percentage of the students who can answer the correct test is 57,37 % or 17 students from 30 students, and the percentage of the students who faced the difficulties is 42,36 % or13 from 30 students.
Nuriyati (2000) in her thesis “A Contrastive Analysis of English and Bahasa Indonesia: Passive Voice”. She concluded that some correspondences in the structure of passive voice of the languages, including:
a). Passive sentences that the attention is to be drawn especially to be receiver of the action.
b). Eliminating the “by phrase” because “the doer” of an action is unimportant or is not known.
c). In the case of a direct and an indirect object, they become the subject in the passive voice.
d). In the case of using infinitives phrase object or with “that clause” objects.
Some items that are said to be non-correspondences, including:
a). The use of personal pronoun 1st person.
b). The use personal pronoun 2st person with one and two objects.
d). The use of the word “kena” in Bahasa Indonesia


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